极速快三

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新中国成立初期习仲勋对西北民族工作的重要贡献

来源:极速快三_极速快三彩票【正规授权】   字体:

摘要: 民族工作是中国共产党领导的革命和建设事业的重要组成部分。习仲勋在新中国成立初期主持中共西北局和西北军政委员会工作期间,模范地创造性地贯彻执行中央提出的民族团结、慎重稳进等一系列民族工作的方针政策,从西北地区实际出发,积极争取少数民族上层人士参政议政,大力帮助少数民族地区发展经济和文化,使西北广大地区在短短三年内就实现安定团结,迅速恢复发展农业畜牧业,为进一步开展西北地区社会主义革命和建设奠定了良好基础。

关键词极速快三: 习仲勋;民族工作;西北五省

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民族问题是西北地区最大的实际问题

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重视争取少数民族上层人士的工作

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极速快三DANSHI,QINGHAISHENGWEIRENGRANJIANCHIYUANLAIDEXIANGFA,10YUE5RIZAICIZHIDIANXIBEIJUYAOQIUJUNSHIJINJIAO。XIZHONGXUNNADAODIANBAOHOULIJIJIQINGHAISHENGWEISHUJIZHANGZHONGLIANGDADIANHUA,ZHISHISHUO: “JUEBUNENGDA,WANWANBUKESHANZIXINGBING,ZHIYOUZAIZHENGZHIWAJIEWUXIAOYIHOU,CAINENGKAOLVJUNSHIJINJIAO”。TONGSHI,TAYOUBAQINGHAISHENGWEIHEXIBEIJUDEQIANHOU4FENGDIANBAOYIBINGSHANGBAOZHONGGONGZHONGYANG。ZHONGYANGWANQUANTONGYIXIZHONGXUNDEYIJIAN,BINGZHISHI: “ZHONGYANGTONGYIXIBEIJU9YUE30RIJI10YUE7RIFUDIAN。WANGQINGHAISHENGWEIJIYUXIRAOJIACUODENGSHANGDINGSHIDANGTIAOJIAN。DIYIBUXIANJIANGJINZHANGJUMIANHUANHEXIALAI”(ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUANYUDUIQINGHAIANGLABULUODOUZHENGFANGZHENWENTIDEZHISHI(1951NIAN10YUE13RI)。)。ZUNZHAOZHONGYANGHEXIBEIJUZHISHI,QINGHAISHENGWEIJIPAIQINGHAISHENGRENMINZHENGFUFUZHUXIXIRAOJIACUOHETONGZHANBUBUZHANGZHOURENSHANJIXUDUOZANGZUBULUOTOURENDENGDAOANGLA,DUOCIYUXIANGQIANTANPAN,DANXIANGQIANRENGYIYIGUXING。YANZHI1952NIANCHUN,SHITAIFAZHANRIYIYANZHONG,JUNSHIJINJIAODESHIJICHENGSHU。ZHEISHI,XIZHONGXUNHEXIBEIJUSHENSHIDUSHI,TONGYIQINGHAISHENGWEIHEQINGHAISHENGJUNQUYU4YUEXIAXUNJINXINGJUNSHIJINJIAODEYIJIAN,BINGSHANGBAOZHONGYANG。TAHAIZHOUMISHEXIANGLEJINJIAOZHIHOUDEYINGXIANGHEBUSHULEJINJIAOSHIYINGGAIZHUYIZUOHAODEGONGZUO: (1)ZAIJIAOTUFEIMINGYIXIAQUDA,DUIXIANGQIANDENGANGLABULUOSHANGCENGRENSHIDECAICHANYIGAIBUDONG;(2)ZAIJINJIAOTONGSHIZHAOJIGEZUGEFANGMIANRENSHIKAIXIESHANGHUIYI,SHUOMINGJISUKUAISANDUOCIZHENGQUJINGGUOHEJINYIBUJIESHIZHENGCE;(3)JINJIAOQIANHOU,YAOZUOHAODANGDIZHOUWEIQUNZHONGGONGZUOHEZHENGQUSHANGCENGDEGONGZUO,ZHENGQUYIQIANJICIQUANGLATANPANDETOURENSUIJUNJINQUGONGZUO。XIBEIJUQINGSHIJINJIAOQINGHAIANGLAFEIBUDEDIANBAO(1952NIAN4YUE11RI)。XIZHONGXUNHEXIBEIJUYOUYU22RIHE25RILIANGCIZHIDIANQINGHAISHENGWEI,DINGZHUZUOHAOGEFANGMIANGONGZUO,QIANGDIAOZAIJINJIAOZHONGRENGYINGLIZHENGXIANGQIANYUQITATEWUTUFEIFENHUA,“ZHIYAOXIANGQIANDAOSHINENGZHUANSHOUZHONGLI,JIULIZHENGTAZHONGLI”,MUQIANJIXUJIJIJINGGUODUOFANGMIANJINXINGZHENGZHIZHENGQU,BUKEFANGSONG(XIBEIJUFUJINJIAOANGLAJUEDINGGAO(1952NIAN4YUE25RI)。)。ZHEIJIUWEIHOULAICHENGGONGZHENGQUXIANGQIANGUILAIDAXIASIXIANGJICHU。

JINGZHONGGONGZHONGYANGHEZHONGYANGJUNWEITONGYI,JINJIAOANGLAFEIBUDEZHANDOUYU5YUE2RIQINGCHENLIUDIANBANANJIHUADAXIANG,4GEXIAOSHIDEZHANDOUJIANGGELUFEITUJIBENJIKUI,XIANGQIANDAISHAOSHURENTAORUJIANZHAXINAN70LIDESHENSHANMILIN。QINGHAISHENGWEIANZHAOXIZHONGXUNDEZHISHI,CHENGLIANGLAQUANZHIWEIYUANHUI,ZHAOKAIQUNZHONGDAHUI,GUANCHEDANGDEKUANDAZHENGCE,SHIFANGBEIFUFEISHOU。SHENGRENMINZHENGFUXIANGJIANZHADIQUBOFAJIUJIKUANHEJIUJILIANG,CHOUDIAOYIPIYILIAO、WENJIAO、MAOYI、MINZUDENGGANBUZUCHENGGONGZUODUI,DAIZHEDALIANGBUPI、SHIYAN、CHAYE、YAOPIN、DIANYINGJIZANGWENXUANCHUANPIN,QIANWANGANGLABULUOWEIWEN,HAIWEI2000DUOZANGZUQUNZHONGYISHANGZHIBING,BAOKUOJIWOBINGZAICHUANGDEXIANGQIANZHIMUZHIHAOLEJIBING。ZAIJUNSHIJINJIAOQUDEJIBENSHENGLIDEQINGKUANGXIA,XIZHONGXUNHEXIBEIJUJIXUYAOQIUQINGHAISHENGWEIJIANCHIZHENGQUXIANGQIANGUILAIDEFANGZHEN。TAMENCONGZHENGQUGENGDUODEZANGZUTOULINGHEGENGDUODESHAOSHUMINZUBULUODEJIAODUKAOLV,ZAIFENXIJIANZHADIQUGONGWEIHEQINGHAISHENGWEIJIGEBAOGAOHOU,RENWEIZHENGQUXIANGQIANGONGZUODELIDUHAIBUGOU,DANGJIZHISHI: ZHENGQUXIANGQIANGUILAI,BUDANLIYUXUNSUANDINGANGLAJIQIZHOUWEIDIQU,GENGZHONGYAODESHIQUESHIDIBIAOXIANWODANGHERENMINZHENGFUDEZHENGCE,DUIZHENGQUTUANJIEQINGHAIGESHAOSHUMINZUBULUOYIZHIDUIJINRUGUOLUOQUGONGZUOHEKAIZHANGANQINGCHUANKANGBIANGONGZUODOUHENYOUYI,YINGDANGBUDONGYAODINAIXINJIANCHIZHEITIAOFANGZHEN(XIBEIJUGUANYUZHENGQUXIANGQIANWENTIDEZHISHI(1952NIAN7YUE14RI)。)。

极速快三JINGGUODUOFANGNULI,ZAIDANGHEZHENGFUZHENGCEDEGANZHAOXIA,XIANGQIANZHONGYUHUIDAOANGLAXIANGRENMINZHENGFUTOUCHENG。ZHEISHIZHENGZAIXINJIANGDEXIZHONGXUNDEDAOXIAOXIHOU,YOUZHISHIQINGHAISHENGWEI: “XIANGQIANYIJINGZHENGQUHUILAI,ZHEIDUIANDINGZANGQUZHIXUJIKAIZHANZANGQUGONGZUOJUNYOUZHONGDAYIYI,QINGQINGHAISHENGWEISHIFENTUOSHANDIWENDINGXIANGQIANQINGXU,BINGCONGDUOFANGMIANXIAOCHUGULV”,“XIANGRUMUQIANPAQUXINING,KEBUBIMIANQIANG,JIURANGZHUANGLAJIAZHONG,YIQIETINGQIZIYUAN,ZHEIYANGYEXUHUIZAODIANCHULAI。XIRAOJIACUO、ZHOURENSHANDENGKEZAOQUYIJIANXIANGQIAN。”(XIZHONGXUNZHIXIBEIJUZHUANZHANGZHONGLIANGDIAN(1952NIAN7YUE17RI)。)QINGHAISHENGWEIQIESHIZHIXINGXIZHONGXUNHEXIBEIJUDEZHISHI,ZHONGYUGANDONGLEXIANGQIAN,SHITAJIECHULEGULV。7YUE31RI,XIANGQIANDAODAXINING,SHOUDAOQINGHAISHENGZHENGFUZHUXIZHAOSHOUSHANHEFUZHUXIZHANGZHONGLIANGDEJIEJIAN。8YUE5RI,QINGHAISHENGMINZUSHIWUWEIYUANHUIZHAOKAIGEZUGEJIEDAIBIAOZUOTANHUISHANGTAOJIANZHADIQUGONGZUO。XIANGQIANZAIHUISHANGFABIAOGANXIANGSHUO: “WOXIANZAIYIJINGWANQUANKUANXIN,HAOWUGULVLE!”TONGSHI,TAZAI《QINGHAIRIBAO》ZHUANWEN: “ZAIGONGCHANDANGHERENMINZHENGFUWEIDAZHENGCEGANZHAOXIA,WOSHOUDAOGANDONG,CONGERRENSHILEFEITUMENDEZHENZHENGMIANMAO,BIANXIAJUEXINHUITOUQINGZUI,BUZAIGENFEITUZUOWEIHAIRENMINDESHIQING。”QINGHAISHENGRENMINZHENGFUWEIRENXIANGQIANJIXUDANRENANGLAQIANHU。JITIANZHIHOU,XIZHONGXUNZAILANZHOUJIEJIANLEXIANGQIAN,XIANGTAZHONGSHENRENMINZHENGFUDUIDAISHAOSHUMINZUPINGDENGTUANJIEDEZHENGCE,MIANLITAZAIQINGHAISHENGRENMINZHENGFULINGDAOXIA,ZUOHAOJIANSHEJIANZHAQUDEGEXIANGGONGZUO。XIANGQIANYIZHILAOJIZHEXIZHONGXUNDEGULI,NULIGONGZUO,LIRENJIANZHAXIANXIANZHANG、HUANGNANZIZHIZHOUFUZHOUZHANGDENG,ZHIDAO1959NIANQUSHI。

30DUONIANHOU,XIZHONGXUNZAIYUBAODIXIZHONGKAITANHUASHI,HAITIDAODANGNIANZHENGQUXIANGQIANGUILAIDEWANGSHI。TASHUO: NEISHIZHANGZHONGLIANGDADIANHUALAIWENWOZENMEBAN?WOSHUOBUNENGDA。XIANGQIANSHIYOUMUBULUODETOUREN,NILAILETAJIUPAOLE,NIZOULETAYOULAILE,TADEZHENGGEBULUOYOUDOUSHIQIBING。ZHANGZHONGLIANGSHUOYAOYONG5GETUANDEBINGLILAIJIEJUEWENTI,WOSHUO5GETUANYEJIEJUEBULE。HOULAIJIAOXIRAOJIACUOQUZUOGONGZUO,LISHISHANGYOUQIQINMENGHUOMA,WOSHIBAJIUCI。HOULAIMAOZHUXIJIANLEWOSHUO: “ZHONGXUN,NIZHENLIHAI,ZHUGELIANGQIQINMENGHUO,NIBIZHUGELIANGHAILIHAI!”(XIZHONGXUNYUXIZHONGKAIDETANHUAJILU(1984NIAN4YUE6RI)。)ZAIZHEIYIZHENGCEZHIDAOXIA,ZAIZHONGGUORENMINJIEFANGJUNDENULIXIA,DAO1952NIANDIHECINIANCHU,XIBEIGEDIFASHENGDEWUZHUANGPANLUANJIBENPINGXI,XIBEILISHISHANGCONGMEIYOUXIAOCHUGUODEFEIHUANJIBENSUQING,XIBEISHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDESHEHUIZHIXUQUYUANDING,WEITUGAIHEGEXIANGSHEHUIGAIGEYIJIJINGJIHUIFUFAZHANDIANDINGLEJICHU。

慎重稳进,不照搬汉族地区的社会改革

极速快三XINZHONGGUOCHENGLICHUQIDEJIBENSHEHUIRENWU,JIUSHIZAIQUANSHEHUISHENRUKAIZHANGEXIANGMINZHUGAIGE,WANCHENGXINMINZHUZHUYIGEMINGYILIUDEGEXIANGRENWU,WEIJINXINGSHEHUIZHUYIGEMINGHEJIANSHESAOQINGDAOLU。RANER,GESHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDESHEHUIFAZHANCHENGDUTONGHANZUDIQUHENBUXIANGTONG。TAMENZAIDUOZHONGQIANZIBENZHUYISHENGCHANGUANXIDESHUFUXIA,JINGJISHEHUIFAZHANCHENGDUBUYI,SHENGCHANSHENGHUOFANGSHIGEYI,YUNEIDIHANZUSHEHUIFAZHANCUNZAIXIANZHUCHAJU。YINCI,ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGHEMAOZEDONGDUOCIZHISHISHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDESHEHUIGAIGEYAOCAIQU“SHENZHONGWENJIN”DEFANGZHEN。XIZHONGXUNMOFANDI、CHUANGZAOXINGDIJIANJUEZHIXINGZHEIYIFANGZHEN,JIJIWENTUODILINGDAOXIBEISHAOSHUMINZUDIQUZAIWENDINGSHEHUIZHIXUDEQIANTIXIA,ZHUBUWANCHENGLEGEXIANGSHEHUIGAIGEHUOWEIHOULAIDEGAIGEDAXIALELIANGHAOJICHU。

GEXIANGSHEHUIGAIGEZHONG,ZUIZHUYAODEJIUSHISHENGCHANZILIAOSUOYOUZHIDEGAIGE,YEJIUSHIFENGJIANTUDISUOYOUZHIHEFENGJIANNONGMUQUZHIDUDEGAIGE。ZHEIYISHIQI,XIZHONGXUNQINZIDANRENXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIYOU25RENZUCHENGDETUDIGAIGEWEIYUANHUIZHUREN。TAZUNZHAOZHONGYANGANPAIBINGYIZIJI20DUONIANZAIXIBEIJINXINGTUDIGEMINGDEJINGYANWEIJICHU,BAXIBEIDIQUDETUDIGAIGEFENWEISANQI: SHOUXIANZAI1950NIANDONGHECINIANCHUNJIBENWANCHENGSHANXIDENGHANZUDIQUDETUDIGAIGE;QICIZAICIJICHUSHANG,ZAI1951NIANDONGHECINIANCHUNZAIGANSUDENGYOUXIANGDANGSHAOSHUMINZUDEDIQUJINXINGGAIGE;ZUIHOUZAICHOUDIAODAPIYIJILEIYIDINGJINGYAN、DUIMINZUWENTIRENSHISHENKEDETUGAIGONGZUOGANBU,SHENRUSHAOSHUMINZUDIQU,BANGZHUSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUFENQIJINXINGTUGAI。XIZHONGXUNHAIQINZISHENRUGANSU、QINGHAI、XINJIANGDENGSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDIAOCHAYANJIU,CANJIAZHEIXIEDIQUZHAOKAIDETUGAIHUIYI,JINXINGZHOUMISIKAOHEJINGXINBUSHU。TAGENJUSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDETUDIWENTITONGMINZUWENTI、ZONGJIAOWENTILIANXIZAIYIQIDETEDIAN,XIANGGEJIGANBUXIANGXIZHISHI: “ZAIMINZUTUANJIEJICHUSHANGQUJINXINGTUGAI。TABAOHANWUGEFANGMIANDEYISI。DIYI,YAOTONGGUODANGDIMINZUDADUOSHUQUNZHONGDEZIJUE;DIER,YAOYOUDANGDIMINZUGANBUCANJIAGONGZUO;DISAN,YAOYOUQIBENMINZUQUNZHONGWEIZHUQUXIANGSHAOSHUMINZUDIZHUJINXINGDOUZHENG;DISI,YAOZUNZHONGGEMINZUZONGJIAOXINYANGHEFENGSUXIGUAN;DIWU,YIDINGYAOXIANZUOHAOZHENGQUGEMINZUSHANGCENG、ZHENGQUZONGJIAOFANGMIANRENWUDETONGYIZHANXIANGONGZUO,RANHOUQUFADONGQUNZHONG,BUKEDIANDAOGUOLAI。”(《XIZHONGXUNWENXUAN》,DI209YE。)QIZHONGTATEBIEQIANGDIAODIWUDIAN,ZHICHU: BIXULIANHEYIQIEKENENGLIANHEDEGEZUSHANGCENGLINGXIURENWUHEGEJIAOPAIZHONGDEYIQIEZANCHENGTUGAIDERENSHI,CAINENGSHINONGMINSHENGSHIGENGJIAZHUANGDA,DIZHUJIEJIGENGJIAGULI(XIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUITUDIGAIGEWEIYUANHUIGUANYUTUDIGAIGEGONGZUOBAOGAO(1952NIAN3YUE)。)。

WEICI,XIZHONGXUNTICHULE“LIANHEFENGJIANFANFENGJIAN”DEZHUMINGGUANDIAN,DEDAOZHONGGONGZHONGYANGHEMAOZEDONGDEZANSHANG。SUOWEI“LIANHEFENGJIANFANFENGJIAN”,JIUSHIXIANZUOHAOZHENGQUTUANJIESHAOSHUMINZUSHANGCENGRENSHIDEGONGZUO,RANHOUZAIQUFADONGQUNZHONGJINXINGTUDIGAIGE。TASHUO,MINZUDIQUDEGAIGE,HAOWUYIWENSHIYAOTONGGUODANGDIMINZUDADUOSHUQUNZHONGDEZIJUEXINGDONGHEDANGDIMINZUGANBUCANJIA;DANYOUYUZAISHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDANGQIANMAODUNDEZHUYAOFANGMIANZAISHANGCENG,“LIANHEZHEIYIBUFENFENGJIANSHILILAIFANDUILINGYIBUFENFENGJIANSHILI,KEYISHUOSHINEILIDEMAODUNDETESHUXING”。ZHEIJIUYAOQIUDUIMINZUSHANGCENGRENSHICAIQUKUANDADERANGBUZHENGCE,ZHENGQUGESHAOSHUMINZUSHANGCENGHEZONGJIAOFANGMIANDERENSHICHULAIZANZHUTUGAI,“ZHEIYIBUFENFENGJIANYONGZANZHUTUGAIHUOBUFANDUITUGAI,LAIHUANQUJISUKUAISAN‘GAIDEHEPINGXIE’,YIJIZAIZONGJIAOFANGMIAN,ZAIGUANXITAMENZISHENMOUXIEFANGMIANLAIHUANQUJISUKUAISANDEMOUZHONGTUOXIE。JISUKUAISANNI,JIUYONG‘HEPINGXIE’HEMOUXIEBIYAODETUOXIE,QUHUANQUFADONGQUNZHONGDEJIAOHAOTIAOJIAN,BAOCUNYIBUFENFENGJIAN,GAODIAODABUFENFENGJIAN。BUHUANSHISHENMEYEDEBUZHEDE。YIQIEKEYIZHENGQULAIBANGZHUTUGAI(ZHISHAOBUFANDUITUGAI)DELILIANG,DOUWUBIZHENGQULIANHEGUOLAI。YONGGEZHONGBANFA,RUKAIDAIBIAOHUI、ZUOTANHUI、ZUZHICANGUANTUGAICHENGGUODENG,JIANGMINGZHENGCE,JIYICHULU,ZHENGQUSHAOSHUMINZUSHANGCENGHEZONGJIAOFANGMIANDERENWUCHULAIZANZHUTUGAI,ZHISHAOBAOCHIZHONGLI”。(《XIZHONGXUNWENXUAN》,DI209YE。)ZHEISHITACONGGANSU、NINGXIA、QINGHAIGEDITUGAIZHONGZONGJIECHUDEXINGZHIYOUXIAODEJINGYAN,YESHINENGGOUSHUNLITUIJINSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUTUGAIDEGENBENYUANYIN。

极速快三XIZHONGXUNZAILINGDAOSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUTUGAIZHONG,TEBIEQIANGDIAOYAOZHUYIGONGZUOFANGFA。TAZAISHIJIANZHONGZHUYIBUDUANZONGJIEJINGYAN,ZHICHU: “SHAOSHUMINZUDIQUGONGZUO,LIANGNIANLAIMODAOYITIAOKEGUIJINGYAN,JIUSHIBAOCHIJINSHEN,WENBUQIANJIN。RENHESHUHUDAYIHUOLUMANGMANGAN,JIUBIRANCHULUANZI”,“ZHEIJIUYAOQIUFANGZHENDUITOU,BUZHOUZOUDUI,RUGUOFANGZHENSHIDUIDEERBUZHOUZOULUANLE,YETONGYANGHUIFASHENGWENTI”(《XIZHONGXUNLUNTONGYIZHANXIAN》,DI115、81YE。)。TASHENYOUTIHUIDISHUO: “ZAISHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDEGONGZUOFANGFA,HAIYAOKAOJISUKUAISANJIXUCHUANGZAO,YINWEIJISUKUAISANGUOQUHAIMEIYOUXINGCHENGWANZHENGDEYITAO。XIBEIZAIQUANGUOLAISHUO,JIECHUMINZUGONGZUOZUIZAO,BIJIAOQILAIJINGYANHAIDUOYIXIE,DANZHEIXIEJINGYANZAIJINTIANDEQINGKUANGXIA,JIUCHADETAIYUANLE。”(《XIZHONGXUNLUNTONGYIZHANXIAN》,DI78YE。)TAQIANGDIAO: “LINGDAOSHANGBIXUBUWEIQUNZHONGYISHIDEBIAOXIAN(TEBIESHISHAOSHUJIJIFENZIDEGUOJIYIJIAN)SUOMIHUO,YONGYUANBAOCHIQINGXINGDETOUNAO。ZAIHUIZUDIQU,‘NANNVYIQIFADONG’DEKOUHAOBUYAOTI,ZONGJIAOWENTIBUYAOGANSHE。”(《XIZHONGXUNWENXUAN》,DI210YE。)TATEBIEZHUYILISHISHANGHUI、HANCHONGTUZUIJIANRUIDEGANSULINXIADIQUDETUGAI,QIANGDIAOZHEILI“YIDINGYAOHEQITADIQUDEZUOFAYOUSUOQUBIE”,ZAIGONGZUODEBUZHOUHEFANGFASHANGYAOGENGJIAJINSHEN,GENGJIAXIZHI,YIQIEJUNANQUNZHONGDEJUEWUCHENGDUBANSHI。“BANFASHANGKEZUZHIHUIMINZHONGSHANGCENGRENWUHUIQUCANJIALINGDAO;ZHENGCESHANGKEYIDUIMINZHURENSHIHEJINBUFENZITUOSHANJIAYIZHAOGU。FANBUKANGJUTUDIGAIGEDEDIZHU,YILVFANGKUANDUIDAI,BADAJIMIANSUOXIAODAOZUIXIAOXIANDU,SHENZHIBUFANGDAIDIANHEPINGFENDIDEWEIDAO。ZHEIYANGFENDISHI,SIHUHEPINGYIDIAN,ERNONGMINFENDETUDIZHIHOU,DIZHUJIEJIJIUGULILE,NONGMINSHILIYEJIUSHENGLE”。(XIZHONGXUNGUANYUXIBEIJUSANYUEFENGONGZUODEZONGHEBAOGAO(1951NIAN4YUE10RI)。)TAPAICHU100DUORENDETUGAIGONGZUODUI,QIANWANGLINXIADIQUBANGZHUGONGZUO,SHIQI“TUGAIJINXINGDEBIJIAOSHUNLI,QUDEHENHAOCHENGGUO”(《XIZHONGXUNGEMINGSHENGYA》,DI186YE。)。

XIZHONGXUNZAI1951NIANDISHICHAQINGHAIBUFENDIQUDETUGAIGONGZUOSHI,LEJIEDAOTAERSIZHOUWEIDENONGMUMINQUNZHONGBUYUANYIJINXINGTUGAI。YIWEINIANZHANGZHESHUO: TAERSIZHOUWEIJIQIANZANGZUTONGBAOBASHENGCHANSHOUHUODEMAICAOGONGSIYUANSHAOGUOZUOFAN,TUGAIHOU,DIFENDAOMEIJIAMEIHU,SIYUANJIUMEIYOUBANFAJIEJUESHAOHUOZUOFANWENTI,QINGQIUBUYAOJINXINGTUGAI。XIZHONGXUNJINGGUOJINYIBUSHENRUDIAOCHAYANJIU,BINGJINGXIBEIJUTAOLUNYANJIUHOUZUOCHUJUEDING: FANSHISIYUANXIAQUDENONGMUMINZANBUSHIXINGTUDIGAIGE,QINGZHENSI、GONGBEI、DAOTANGTUDIZANSHIYILVBUDONG。ZHEISHIGUANGDASENGZHONGFEICHANGGANJI,QINGHAIRENMINQUNZHONGYEFEICHANGMANYI。(《XIZHONGXUNGEMINGSHENGYA》,DI304YE。)XIZHONGXUNHAIYAOQIUJINXINGTUGAIDEXIBEIGESHENGDUIGEMINZU、GEJIAOPAIDELINGXIURENWU,YAOPAICHUMINGDAN,ZAITUGAIZHONGYUYISHIDANGBAOHU。TASHUO: “FANJISUKUAISANHEZUOLEDEREN,JIULIZHENGZHANGQITONGTAHEZUOXIAQU,DIUDIAOYIGEHEZUOLEDERENBIZHIYUANLAIWEICENGTUANJIENEIYIGERENDEBULIANGYINGXIANGHAIDA。”(《XIZHONGXUNLUNTONGYIZHANXIAN》,DI113YE。)GANSUSHENGZAITUGAIZHONGBAOHULEMAFUCHEN、MAQUANQINDENGREN,CONGERSHIGANSUSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDETUGAIDEYIWENTUOSHUNLIDIJINXING。

极速快三ZAICIGUOCHENGZHONG,XIZHONGXUNHAIZAIZHONGYANGZHIJIELINGDAOXIA,JIUZHENGLEXINJIANGDIQUZAIMUQUSHIXINGTONGHANZUDIQUYIYANGGAIGEDEJIZAOQINGXIANG。BENLAIXIBEIJUDUIMUQUGAIGESHIJIANCHISHENZHONGWENJINFANGZHEN,“ZAIKAIZHANMUQUGONGZUODEBUZHOUSHANG,SHISHOUXIANZHUAJINANDINGZHIXU,KAIZHANYILIAO、MAOYIGONGZUO,PEIYANGGANBUSANXIANGJIBENRENWU”,“JILIBIMIANMUQUZHENDONG”(XIZHONGXUNZAIZHONGGONGXINJIANGSHENGDIERJIEDANGDAIBIAOHUIYISHANGDEBAOGAO(1952NIAN7YUE15RI)。)。DANYOUXIELINGDAOGANBUZAIGEXIANGGONGZUOSHENGLIJINXINGDEQINGKUANGXIA,TICHUBAMUQUGAIGEHENONGCUNTUDIGAIGETONGSHIJINXING,XIAOMIEFENGJIANYOUMUZHIDU、ZUZHICHUMUHEZUOSHEJITIJINGYINGHEBUJINGGUOFENSANTUDIDEGETIJINGJIJIEDUANERZHIJIEYICUNHUOXIANGWEIHEZUOSHENGCHANDANWEI,ZUZHINONGYESHENGCHANHEZUOSHEHUOHUZHUZUGONGTONGJINGYING。ZHEIJIUDALUANLEXIBEIJUDETUGAIGONGZUOANPAI,ZAOCHENGMUQUSHEHUIZHIXUDEHUNLUAN,XUDUOMUMINSHENZHITAOWANGSULIANJINGNEI。ZAIZHONGGONGZHONGYANGHEMAOZEDONGDEZHIJIELINGDAOXIA,XIZHONGXUNRENZHENGUANCHEZHONGYANGZHISHI,HENKUAIJIUZHENGZHEIZHONGQINGXIANG,ZHIDINGLEXIBEIJUZAIMUQUGAIGEGONGZUOZHONGDEZHENGQUEZHENGCE。TAXIANGGEJIGANBUXIANGXICHANSHIZHANMUQUCHUMUYEBAIFENZHILIUQISHIDEMUZHUJINGJIDEXINGZHI,SHIBANFENGJIAN、BANZIBENZHUYIXINGZHIDEJINGJI。QIZHENGZHISHANGDECANKUYAZHAMUMINSHIFENGJIANDE,QIDUICHUMUYEDEJINGYINGFANGFAZESHIDAIZIBENZHUYIXINGZHIDE。YINCIJISUKUAISANDEZHENGCE,SHIZHUBUQUXIAOMUZHUZAIZHENGZHISHANGDEFENGJIANTEQUAN,ZAIKENENGDETIAOJIANXIASHIDANGGAISHANMUGONGSHENGHUO,DANYOUJIANJUEBAOHUQIMUZHUJINGJI,BINGGULIQIFAZHAN,SHIQICHENGWEIXINMINZHUZHUYIJINGJIDEYIGEZUCHENGBUFEN。MUZHUJIEJIYIBANSHILIANHEDUIXIANG,ERBUSHIDAJIDEDUIXIANG。TAZHENDUIYIXIEGANBUZAIGONGZUOZHONGBAZONGJIAOHEFENGJIANZHIDUHUNTONGQILAIJIAYIFANDUIDEQINGXIANG,YIJUENGESIZAI《JIATING、SIYOUZHIHEGUOJIADEQIYUAN》YISHUZHONGDEFENXI,ZHEZHONGSHUOMINGBUNENGBAZONGJIAODANGZUOFENGJIANZHIDUDEZUCHENGBUFEN,ZONGJIAOBUHUISUIZHEFENGJIANBOXUEZHIDUDEXIAOMIEERXIAOMIE。TAHAOZHAOHANZUGANBUYAONULIXUEXIMAKESIZHUYIGUANYUMINZUGONGZUODELILUNHEZHENGCE,ZAIGONGZUOZHONGQIESHIZUODAOYIQIECONGSHIJICHUFA。

FAZHANSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUJINGJISHIZUOHAOMINZUGONGZUODEJICHU。ZUOHAOSHAOSHUMINZUGONGZUO,CHULEZHENGQUMINZUSHANGCENGRENSHIYIWAI,HAIYAOZHENGQUGUANGDASHAOSHUMINZUDEJIBENQUNZHONG,ZHEISHIQIZHONGYAOJICHU。XIZHONGXUNCONGZHANGQISHIJIANZHONGSHENSHENTIHUIDAO,“YAOBAGEMINZUDEGONGZUOGAOHAO,QUANLAIGEMINZUDEGUANGDAQUNZHONG”。SUIZHEXIBEIGEXIANGGONGZUODEKAIZHAN,“GEMINZUJIANZAIGUOQUXUDUODAIYOUSAOLUANXINGDEJIUFENXIANZAITINGZHILE,QUANXIBEIDEQINGKUANGWENDINGLE,QUANXIBEIDEGONGZUOJIAZIDAQILAILE,JIANLILEXIBEIGEMINZUJIANXINDEHEZUOGUANXI”,ZHEIJIUDIANDINGLEZHENGQUSHAOSHUMINZUQUNZHONGDEJICHU。XIZHONGXUNZAIXIANGMAOZEDONGDEBAOGAOZHONGZHICHU: “WENZHUGEMINZU,BAGUANXIGAOHAO,ZHEISHIDIYIBU。DIERBUJIUYAOSHENRUGEMINZULAODONGQUNZHONGZHONG,JIANLIZHIJIELIANXI,ZHUJIANBATAMENFADONGQILAI。”TARENWEI,DUISHAOSHUMINZUSHANGCENGRENSHIZHUYAOSHIZAIZHENGZHISHANGGUANGFANZHENGQUHEANZHI,DANDUIXIACENGQUNZHONGZEXUYAODUOCONGJINGJISHANGXIANGBANFA。“DADESHEHUIGAIGERENGBUNENGJI,DANBIXUZHESHOUYIDIANYIDIDIBANGZHUQUNZHONGQUJIEJUEXUYAOHEKENENGJIEJUEDEQIESHENWENTI。JINGGUOZHEIXIEJUTIGONGZUOHEGEZHONGGEYANGDEFANGSHI,XIYINGEMINZULAODONGQUNZHONGZHONGJIJIFENZICHULAICANJIAGONGZUO。ZHEIYIBUGENGJIANKU,SHIJIANYEZHANG,BINGQIEJUEBUNENGFANGSONG。”(《XIZHONGXUNLUNTONGYIZHANXIAN》,DI36、63、58、59YE。)MAOZEDONGKENDINGLETADEZHEIYIYIJIAN。

极速快三WEILEZAIXINDEJICHUSHANGJINYIBUZUOHAOSHAOSHUMINZUQUNZHONGGONGZUO,XIZHONGXUNYU1951NIAN3YUELINGDAOZHAOKAIXIBEITONGZHANMINZUGONGZUOHUIYI,TAOLUNYANJIUZUOHAOSHAOSHUMINZUGONGZUODEGEGEFANGMIAN。TAZONGJIEYINIANDUOLAIDEMINZUGONGZUO,GENJUSHAOSHUMINZUQUNZHONGJUEDADUOSHUYIKAOCHUMUYEWEISHENG,MUMINYOUBINGDEBUDAOYIZHIDESHIJIQINGKUANG,ZHONGDIANTICHU: JISUKUAISANYAOJISHAOSHUMINZUQUNZHONGKANBING,PAIYILIAODUI,SHENRUDAORENMINLIBIANQUZUOQUNZHONGGONGZUO。BUJINJIRENKANBINGERQIEYAOJISHENGKOUKAN,YAOSHITAMENRENWANG,NIUYANGYEWANG。ZAIYIGEJIUSHIZUOSHENGYI,GAOMAOYI,SHIXINGGONGPINGJIAOYI。“ZONGZHI,KANBINGZUOSHENGYI,ZHEISHIJISUKUAISANMUQIANZAISHAOSHUMINZUDIQUZUIZHONGYAODEQUNZHONGGONGZUO,YEJIUSHIJISUKUAISANMUQIANZAISHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDEZUIZHONGYAODEZHENGZHIRENWU。”TAXINGXIANGDIXIANGGANBUMENQIANGDIAO: “LIULINGLIU、PANNIXILIN、YANGMAO,JIUSHINEILIDEZHENGZHIGONGZUO。BAMUQUQUNZHONGDEBINGZHIHAO,ZHENGFUDEYINGXIANGJIUHUIKUODA,QUNZHONGJIUHUIFADONGQILAI,ZHEIYANGSHIJISHANGJIUJIANRUOLEFENGJIANSHILIHEZONGJIAOSHILIDEYINGXIANG。”(《XIZHONGXUNLUNTONGYIZHANXIAN》,DI75、76YE。)

JIYUZHEIZHONGKAOLIANG,XIZHONGXUNTOURUJIDADEJINGLIBANGZHUSHAOSHUMINZUFAZHANCHUMUYESHENGCHAN。CHUMUYESHIXIBEIGUOMINJINGJIDEZHONGYAOZUCHENGBUFEN,MUQUYUEZHANQUANQUZONGMIANJIDEBANSHUYISHANG。DANZAIJIUZHONGGUO,ZHENGFUDUONIANLAIBUZHONGSHICHUMUYE,XIBEICHUMUYEJIANJIANSHUAILUO。XINZHONGGUOCHENGLIQIANJIN10NIAN,JINQINGHAISHENGSHENGCHUSHULIANGJIUJIANSHAOLE40%,NINGXIADEMAZEJIANSHAOLE70%,NIUHELUOTUOJIANSHAOLEYUE50%。(XIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUICHUMUBUGUANYUYIJIUWULINGNIANGONGZUOZONGJIEJIWUYINIANDEFANGZHENYURENWU(1951NIAN)。)RANER,XIBEIDIQUYIJIEFANG,XIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIJIUZAIXIBEIGEJIZHENGFUJIGUANLISHELIZHUANGUANCHUMUSHIYEDEJIGOU。ZAI1950NIAN7YUEZHAOKAIDEXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIDIERCIHUIYISHANG,SHAOSHUMINZUWEIYUANDALIZHAYADENGCENGTICHUFAZHANCHUMUSHIYEDETIAN。HUIYIJINGGUORENZHENTAOLUN,TONGGUOLEZHEIYITIANBINGZUOCHUCHIQINGCHUMUBUBANLIDEYOUGUANJUEYI。HUIHOU,XIZHONGXUNYIXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIMINGYIXIAWEN,YAOQIUYOUGUANBUMENRENZHENBANLIZHEIYITIAN。CHUMUBUGENJUZHEIYITIAN,ZAIGANSU、QINGHAIHEXINJIANGDENGDISHELISHOUYIFANGZHIZHANHEZHONGCHUCHANG,ZUZHISHOUYIXUNHUIFANGZHIDUIDENG。(XIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUICHUMUBUGUANYUCHENGFUQIANFENGTIANJIJUEYIBENNIANSHISHIQINGXINGQINGJIANHEYOU(1951NIAN2YUE4RI)。)

1951NIANCHU,XIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIYOUZHAOKAIXIBEIDIQUDIYICICHUMUSHOUYIHUIYI,LISHISHIJITIAN。ZHEICIHUIYIZONGJIELE1950NIANCHUMUYEFANGMIANDEGONGZUO,FENXILEXIBEICHUMUYEZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI,MINGQUELEJINHOUDEFAZHANFANGXIANGHERENWU。XIZHONGXUNQINZICANJIAZHEICIHUIYI,BINGZUOLEZHANGPIANJIANGHUA,ZHEZHONGZHICHUFAZHANCHUMUYEDEZHONGYAOYIYI。TASHUO: GUANYUZHEIYANGDEHUIYIZAIXIBEILAIJIANGSHIDIYICI,GUOQUCONGLAIMEIYOUZHENGFUBACHUMUYEZHUANMENKAIHUILAIYANJIU。XIBEIYOUHAOJIGEMINZUHEGUANGDADERENMINDOUSHIYICHUMUYEWEISHENG,YINCIYAOFAZHANXIBEIRENMINDEJINGJI,BIXUZAIFAZHANGONGYEHENONGYEDETONGSHI,ZHUZHONGFAZHANCHUMUYE,RUGUOHUSHIZHEIGEWENTIJIUDENGYUZAIZHENGZHISHANGFANYANZHONGDECUOWU。SUOYI,RENMINZHENGFUYAOBACHUMUYELIEWEIJIANSHEZHONGHENZHONGYAODEYIXIANG。JISUKUAISANJIUSHIYAORENWANGCHUWANG,“RENCAILIANGWANG”。XIANZAIXIBEIDERENKOU、SHENGCHUDOUBUWANG,SIWANGLVYEHENDA。JINTIANJISUKUAISANRENYAOHUODEJIANKANG,JIANSHAOSIWANG;SHENGCHUYESHIYIYANGYAODADAO“CAOTOUXINGWANG”“NIUYANGCHENGQUN”。TASHUO: RENMINZHENGFUZUIDADEYIXIANGZHENGZHIGONGZUOJIUSHIJILAOBAIXINGZUOYIXIESHIQING,ZENYANGYANGYANG、ZENYANGYANGJI、ZENYANGKANNIU、ZENYANGSHIYANGDUOSHENGCHANYANGGAO,JINTIANDEZHENGFUJIGUANJIUSHIZUOZHEIXIESHIQING,ZHEIJIUSHIJISUKUAISANJINTIANZUISHIJI、ZUIDA、ZUIYOUYIYIDEZHENGZHIGONGZUO,ZHEIJIUSHIJISUKUAISANJINTIANDEZHENGZHIRENWU。JISUKUAISANYAOWEILAOBAIXINGZAIYIXIESHIQINGSHANGDUODASUAN,SHIRENMINCAIFUZENGJIA,RENMINDESHENGHUOJIUKEYIZHUJIANGAISHAN。XIANGQINGHAIDEZANGMINZUIGANXINGQUDESHIYANGMAO,SHOUGOUTAMENDEYANGMAO,HUANHUITAMENSUOXUYAODEDONGXI,TAMENJIUHUANYINGNI,ZHEISHIGEZHENGZHIWENTI,YEJIUSHIQUNZHONGWENTI。

XIZHONGXUNZIXIYANJIUXIBEIDECHUMUSHOUYIYUFANGJIGOUFENBUTU,FAXIANXIBEIDECHUMUSHOUYIYUFANGJIGOUHAISHIHENSHAO。YUSHITATICHU: YAOZAIXIBEIMUQUDEDABUFENDIQUJIANLIZHEIZHONGJIGOU,YAODUIMUQUDEMA、YANG、LUOTUODENGGEZHONGQINGKUANGSHIFENLEJIEHESHUXI,1951NIANDERENWUJIUSHIDIAOCHAYANJIU,ZAITONGSHIJIGONGZUOXIANGJIEHEDEGUOCHENGZHONGLAIMOQINGQINGKUANG,ZUODAOXINZHONGYOUSHU,RANHOUZAIZHIDINGZHOUMIQIESHIDEJIHUA。TAHAITICHUYAOJIANLIXIBEISHOUYIXIEHUIDEQUNZHONGZUZHI,XISHOUQUNZHONGZHONGJIANDEZHONGSHOUYIDENGGENGDUODERENJIARUXIEHUI,YIWEINONGMUMINGENGHAODIFUWU,CUJINXIBEICHUMUGONGZUODEKAIZHAN。

ZHEIXIEZHENGCEHENKUAIJIUZAIQINGHAI、SHANXI、NINGXIADENGDICHUXIANDEDAMIANJIKOUTIYIZHONGFAHUILEZUOYONG。XIZHONGXUNQINZIBUSHU,LIJICHENGLI“XIBEIKOUTIYIFANGZHIWEIYUANHUI”,TONGYIZHIHUIQUANXIBEIKOUTIYIDEFANGZHIGONGZUO,BINGYITAHEPENGDEHUAI、ZHANGZHIZHONGDEMINGYI,FACHU《XIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIGUANYUFANGZHIKOUTIYIDEJINJIZHISHI》,YAOQIUXIBEIGESHENGBIXUZHONGSHIZHEIYIGONGZUO,DALIXUANCHUANFADONGQUNZHONG,TIGAOQUNZHONGDUIKOUTIYIDERENSHIHEJINGTI,HUAFENYIQUSHISHIFENGSUOGUANZHIDENG。ZHIHOU,TADUOCIDUCUGEJIZHENGFUHEYOUGUANBUMENCAIQUYOUXIAOCUOSHI,JIEJUECHUMUYEZHONGCUNZAIDEWENTI。1952NIAN6YUECHU,TAZHUCHIZHAOKAIXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIDI75CIXINGZHENGHUIYI,ZAICIYANJIUJIAQIANGCHUMUGONGZUODEYOUGUANWENTI。

YOUYUXIZHONGXUNHEXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIJIGEJIZHENGFUDEZHONGSHI,XIBEIDECHUMUGUANLIGONGZUOCONGWUDAOYOU,ZHUBUJIANLIHEJIANQUANLEGEJIJIGOU,DALIPEIXUNGEJIYEWUJISHURENYUAN,“JIAQIANGLEQUNZHONGXINGDESHENGCHANBAOYUHEFANGYIGONGZUO,HAOZHAOGUANLICAOYUAN,HUAQULUNMU,YANCHIFANGMU,CHUBEIDONGCAOHEXIUZHUTUWEIFENGZHANG”。SHAN、GAN、NING、QING4SHENGCHENGLILEXIAN、QU、XIANGBAOCHUWEIYUANHUI1399GE,CUNBAOCHUXIAOZU7241GE,YOUCAOYUANDEXUDUODIQUHUAPIANCHENGLILECAOYUANGUANLIWEIYUANHUI,BALAODONGMOFAN、ZHONGCHUHU、ZHONGSHOUYI、YANGBASHIYIJIMUMINZHONGDEJIJIFENZIZUZHIQILAI,GAISHANSIYANGGUANLI。“JIEZHI1951NIANDI,JUBUWANQUANTONGJIJIBUFENGUJITUISUAN,QUANQUYICHUYIDA915WANYUTOU,JIAO1950NIANZENGJIA13.59%,CHAOGUOZHANQIAN(1937NIAN)SHUIPING1.83%;GONGYOUMIANYANGHESHANYANG2499WANYUZHI,JIAO1950NIANZENGJIA6.61%”。DAO1952NIANSHANGBANNIAN,QUANXIBEICHUMUYEYOUYOUXINDEFAZHAN。“ZAIQUNZHONGSHENGCHANQINGXUGAOZHANG,JIJIGAIJINCHUMUGUANLISIYANGQINGKUANGXIA,BUFENCAOYUANYIJINGTINGZHIPOHUAI,TINGZHILESHENGCHUDAPISIWANGDEXIANXIANG。LIRUNINGXIAQUANSHENGJINCHUNYINFAEERSIDEYANGZHIJIN1880YUZHI,JINJISHANGNIANDEQIANFENZHILIUDIANWU。”(XIBEIQUCHUMUGONGZUODEJIBENQINGKUANGHEYIJIUWUERNIANXIABANNIANDEGONGZUORENWU(1952NIAN6YUE3RI)。)MUQUJINGJIYESUIZHECHUCHANPINZENGDUOERRIJIANFANRONG,WANQUANGAIBIANLEMUMINYIWANGJIHANJIAOPODEQIONGKURIZI。RUXINJIANGSHENGWUQIAXIANJUZHUZAIPAMIERGAOYUANBIANYUANDEKEERKEZIZUDEMUMIN,ZAIJIEFANGHOUDELIANGNIANDUOZHONG,SHENGCHUCONG8WANDUOTOUFAZHANDAOJIN16WANTOU,MEIGEZHANGPENGDEMUMINDOUTIANZHILEXINYI,CHISHANGMIANFEN,YINCITAMENLIUXINGZHEZHEIYANGDEGEQU: “MAOZHUXIA,NINDEYANJINGKANDAOLEPAMIERGAOYUAN,JISUKUAISANDESHENGHUOYINIANHAOYINIAN,NINDAIJIJISUKUAISANDESHI‘RENCHULIANGWANG’,JISUKUAISANBAODANINDESHI‘AIGUOZENGCHAN’!”(XIBEILIANGNIANBANDECHUMUSHOUYIGONGZUOZONGJIE(1952NIAN)。)

CIWAI,XIZHONGXUNHEXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIHAIDALIKAIZHANMUQUDEMAOYIGONGZUO,“JIZHONGYIQIEKENENGSHIYONGDELILIANG,FAZHANXIONGDIMINZUDIQUDEMAOYI”(《XIZHONGXUNLUNTONGYIZHANXIAN》,DI89YE。),ZAIGAN、NING、QING、XIN4SHENGLUXUJIANLIMAOYIZHUANYEJIGOU211GE,XIANHOUZUZHIYUE650GEGEZHONGXINGSHIDELIUDONGMAOYIZU,SHENRUSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUJINXINGMAOYI。TAMENZUNZHAOZHOUENLAITICHUDE“DUISHAOSHUMINZUDIQUDEMAOYI,BUNENGBOXUERENJIA,YEBUNENGZHIZUODAOPINGDENGHULI。YOUYUGUOQUDUIBUQIRENJIA,JINHOUJIUYINGGAIDUOBUTIE,DUOZHICHUYIXIE,RANGSHAOSHUMINZUTONGBAODUODEYIXIELIYI”(ZHOUENLAIDUIXIBEIDIQUMINZUGONGZUODEJIDIANYIJIAN(1950NIAN6YUE26RI)。)DEYUANZE,YIBIJIAOGAODEJIAGESHOUGOUPI、MAO、YAOCAIDENGTUTECHANPIN,YIBIJIAODIDEJIAGEDALIANGSHURUCHA、BUDENGSHENGHUORIYONGBIXUPIN,SHIGONGNONGMUCHANPINDEJIAOHUANBILVQILEJIDABIANHUA。RUXINJIANGDEXIAOMAIHUANKAJIBUDEBILV,1951NIANBI1949NIANTIGAODAO400%,“QINGHAIPI、MAOJIAGEJIAOJIEFANGQIANTIGAOLESHIJIBEIDAOERSHIBEI。NINGXIAMENGQIJINNIANWUYUETONGJITUOMAOHUANXIAOMAIDEBILV,JIAOJIEFANGQIANZENGJIALE38BEI!ALASHANQIDEMENGMINCHUSHOU2JINTUOMAO,JIUKEYIHUANDEYISHENDANYI,CHUSHOU20JINTUOMAO,JIUKEYIHUANQUYIRENQUANNIANSUOXUDESHILIANG”。XININGDEZANGZUQUNZHONGZAIJIEFANGQIAN,YONG100JINYANGMAOHUAN1KUAIZHUANCHA;JIEFANGHOU,QUNZHONGYONGTONGYANGDUODEYANGMAOKEYIHUANHUI15KUAIZHUANCHA。ZHEIJIUJIDADIZHENGQULEQUNZHONG,GEZURENMINGESONGMAOZEDONGZHUXIHEGONGCHANDANGWEI“JIGUANGMINGYOUWENNUANDETAIYANG”。

极速快三JINGGUODANGHEGUOJIAYIJIXIBEIJUHEXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIZAIZHENGZHIJINGJISHANGYIXILIEDEGONGZUO,XIBEIDIQUMINZUGONGZUOTONGQUANGUOYIYANG,HANZUHESHAOSHUMINZUGUANXICHUBUCHENGWEIPINGDENGHUZHUDEGUANXI。DANYOUYUZHANGQILISHIFAZHANDEYUANYIN,YAOZHENZHENGXIAOCHUGEMINZUJIANDEGEHE、CAIJIHEBUXINRENXINLI,SHIGEMINZUZHENZHENGZAIPINGDENGHUZHUDEJICHUSHANGTUANJIEQILAI,HAIBIXUJIXUZHANGQIYOUJIHUADIBANGZHUGESHAOSHUMINZUTIGAOHEFAZHANWENHUAJIAOYUSHUIPING。ZHENGRUXIZHONGXUNSUOQIANGDIAO: “NULISHIGEXIONGDIMINZUZAIJINGJISHANG、WENHUASHANGZHUJIANDIGANSHANGNEIDI。ZHEISHIMINZUPINGDENGTUANJIEQUESHIDEBAOZHENG”。ZAISHIJIGONGZUOZHONG,XIZHONGXUNHEXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIYESHIFENZHONGSHIFAZHANSHAOSHUMINZUDEWENHUA,CHONGFENZUNZHONGSHAOSHUMINZUDECHUANTONGWENHUAHEFENGSUXIGUAN,ZAICAIZHENGYUSUANZHONGBOCHUXIANGDANGJINGFEIZAIMINZUJUJUDIQUJIANLIZHONG、XIAOXUEXIAO,XUEXIBENMINZUYUYAN。TASHUO: “GEMINZUDEWENHUA,YAOGONGTONGFAZHAN,YAOHUXIANGJISUKUAISAN,TEBIEYAOBANGZHUGESHAOSHUMINZUFAZHANTAMENBENMINZUDEWENHUA。RUWEIWUERZUDEWENHUA、MENGZUDEWENHUA、ZANGZUDEWENHUA、HUIZUDEWENHUA,YIJIHENDUOQITAXIONGDIMINZUDEWENHUA,YINGGAIBANGZHUTAMENFAZHAN。SHAOSHUMINZUYEYINGGAIXISHOUQITAMINZUDEJINGHUA,LAICHONGSHIZIJIMINZUDEWENHUA。ZHEIJIAOGONGTONGFAZHAN,HUXIANGFAZHAN,HUXIANGJISUKUAISAN,QUZHANGBUDUAN。”(《XIZHONGXUNLUNTONGYIZHANXIAN》,DI98YE。)WEICI,XIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIDUOCIZUZHISHAOSHUMINZUDAIBIAORENSHIDAOBEIJING、TIANJINDENGDICANGUAN,LIYONGGEZHONGXINGSHIHEJIHUIJIESHAOSHAOSHUMINZUDEYOUXIUWENHUAYISHU,CUJINXIBEISHAOSHUMINZUDIQUWENHUADEXUNSUFAZHAN。XIZHONGXUNHEXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIHAIDUOCIZUZHIWEIWENTUAN,DAOXINJIANG、GUOLUO、GANNAN、PINGLIANGDENGSHAOSHUMINZUDIQUJINXINGWEIWEN,FANGYINGDIANYING,SHIXINGMIANFEIXUNHUIYILIAO。SHAOSHUMINZUSHANGCENGRENSHIHEGUANGDAQUNZHONGDOUGANDAOGONGCHANDANGJIRENMINZHENGFUSHIZHENXINCHENGYIBANGZHUTAMENDE,TAMENDIYICIGANSHOUDAOLEZUGUODAJIATINGDEWENNUAN。RUQINGHAIHERIFUQIANHULAJIASHUO: “GUOQUJISUKUAISANBUZHIDAOZIJIYOUGUOYOUJIA,GENGBUZHIDAOSHENMESHIZUGUO,JIEFANGYIHOU,CAIRENSHILEJISUKUAISANYOUYIMAOZEDONGWEISHOUDEKEAIDEZUGUO。”

ZHANGHELUORI,XIONGGUANMANDAO。GONGHEGUOCHENGLICHUQIDEDAXIBEI,JINGGUOSANNIANDEJIANKUGONGZUO,DAO1952NIAN9YUEXIZHONGXUNDIAOZHONGYANGGONGZUOLIKAIXIBEISHI,XIBEIWUSHENGCHUBUSHIXIANLEGEMINZUTUANJIEHUZHU、JINGJIXUNSUHUIFUFAZHANDELIANGHAOJUMIAN。ZHENGRUBUJIUHOUTAZAIJIMAOZEDONGDEBAOGAOZHONGZHICHUDE: “SANNIANLAI,XIBEIMINZUGONGZUOCHENGJIHENDA,GEMINZUJIANDETUANJIEGENGJIAQINMILE,TEBIESHIJINNIANYILAI,YOUYUZHENGQUEGUANCHELEZHONGYANGMINZUZHENGCE,ERSHUNLIDIJIEJUELEXINJIANGWENTI,GANSUPINGLIANGXIJISHIJIAN、AMUQIHESHIJIAN,TEBIESHIQINGHAIANGLAWUZHUANGPANLUAN,YINERDADAFENGFULEMINZUGONGZUODEJINGYAN。GAN、QINGZANGQUJINNIANYEDOUPAIQUFANGWENTUAN、GONGZUOTUAN,ZUOLEHENDADEZHENGQUTUANJIEDEGONGZUO,ZHEIXIEDIQUJIBENSHANGSHIANDINGXIALAILE。”(《XIZHONGXUNWENXUAN》,DI240YE。)1954NIAN,ZHONGYANGTONGZHANBUZAI《GUANYUGUOQUJINIANNEIDANGZAISHAOSHUMINZUZHONGJINXINGGONGZUODEZHUYAOJINGYANZONGJIE》ZHONGZHICHU: “FANSHIZHENGQUEDIRENSHIDAOMINZUWENTIZAIGUOJIAJIANSHESHIYEYUDANGDIZHENGZHISHENGHUOZHONGDEYANZHONGYIYI,ZHENGQUEDIGUANCHELEDANGDEMINZUZHENGCEDEDIQU,JIUNENGGOUHUODEMINZUJIANDEPINGDENG、TUANJIE、HUXIANGXINRENYUHEZUO,MINZUGONGZUOJIUYOUHENDADECHENGJI”(《JIANGUOYILAIZHONGYAOWENXIANXUANBIAN》DI5CE,ZHONGYANGWENXIANCHUBANSHE,1993NIAN,DI649YE。)。XIZHONGXUNZHUCHILINGDAODEXIBEIJUHEXIBEIJUNZHENGWEIYUANHUIDEXIAQUXIANRANSHUYUZHEIYILEIDIQU。TAYIFENGFUDESHIJIGONGZUOJINGYAN,YANJINXIZHIDEGONGZUOZUOFENG,KUANHOUZHENCHENGDEGERENPINGE,WEIXINSHENGDERENMINGONGHEGUODEGONGGUHEXIBEISHAOSHUMINZUDATUANJIEJUMIANDEXINGCHENGZUOCHULEZHONGYAOGONGXIAN!

(BENWENZUOZHEWANGSHUANGMEI ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGWENXIANYANJIUSHIYANJIUYUAN BEIJING100017)

YUANZAI: 《ZHONGGONGDANGSHIYANJIU》2017NIANDI1QI


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